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Cancer in Ontario

Key findings

As the incidence rate of cancer increases and death rate from cancer decreases, the number of people living with cancer in Ontario is expected to rise. Statistics show that the 5-year relative survival ratio for most common cancers has improved over time. Exceptions to this trend are bladder and uterine cancer.

See CSQI’s “Bladder cancer in Ontario” feature.

How do incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence relate to one another?

Incidence

  • Incidence is a measure of cancer burden in a population. It describes the number of new cases of cancer diagnosed in a given time period. It is often expressed as a rate per 100,000 people.
  • Cancer risk in a population is related to many things in addition to age, such as:
    • Prevalence of risk factors that include those that are modifiable (e.g., tobacco use, obesity or vaccine-preventable infections such as hepatitis B) and non-modifiable (e.g., reproductive and hormonal factors or genetics).
    • Prevalence of protective behaviours, including uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.
    • Cancer screening patterns (availability, type and uptake).
    • Exposure to environmental or occupational carcinogens (such as asbestos).
  • It can be difficult to link exposure to risk factors and cancer in the population, partly because cancer can develop at different rates after exposure. Lung cancer rates, for example, can take about 2 decades to reflect changes in provincial smoking rates. In contrast, rapid uptake of screening can result in an apparent sudden rise in cancer diagnoses because more cancers are discovered earlier than they otherwise would have been.

Mortality

  • Mortality describes the number of cancer deaths in a given time period. As with incidence, it often is expressed as a rate per 100,000 people. Mortality statistics are related to both incidence and survival.
  • Mortality rates reflect the impact of factors that increase the risk of dying from cancer and of interventions that reduce this risk (such as screening and treatment).

Survival

  • Cancer survival in a population describes the average prognosis over a given period of time after a cancer diagnosis. When survival of cancer patients is compared to the survival of the general population, it is called relative survival.
  • Relative survival is a ratio that compares the survival experience of individuals with cancer to that of people of the same age and sex in the general population. It shows the extent to which cancer shortens life, and it is often age-adjusted when comparing survival ratios from different time periods. This is done to account for the fact that the risk of death increases as we age—and the Ontario population is aging.

Prevalence

  • Prevalence describes the number of people in a population who are still alive on a given date. It includes those who were diagnosed within a given period of time (such as within the past 10 years) and those who have been recently diagnosed. Prevalence statistics depend on both incidence and survival.

Rates and ratios for incidence, mortality and survival are age-adjusted to allow comparison over time while accounting for changes in the age structure of the population.

See the corresponding methodology pages for more details on our analysis, as well as definitions of cancer.

Figure 1. Growth in new cancer cases, Ontario, 1981 to 2018

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: October 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Shaded rates are estimates.
  2. Number of new cases is based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with incidence counts and rates for 2009 and years prior should not be made.

 

Figure 2. Most common cancers diagnosed in Ontario, males, 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Number of new cases is based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with incidence counts and rates for 2009 and years prior should not be made.
  2. "All other cancers" grouping excludes basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. These cancers are not captured by the Ontario Cancer Registry.

 

 

Figure 3. Most common cancers diagnosed in Ontario, females, 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Number of new cases is based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with incidence counts and rates for 2009 and years prior should not be made.
  2. "All other cancers" grouping excludes basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. These cancers are not captured by the Ontario Cancer Registry.

 

 

Figure 4. Age-standardized incidence rates of all cancers, by sex, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Observed incidence rates are based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with rates for 2009 are shown here to highlight the impact of this change in counting standards for multiple primary cancers, but such comparisons should generally not be made.
  3. Incidence trend lines are based on incidence rates that have been adjusted to adhere to the standards of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) for counting multiple primary cancers to allow for direct comparisons of incidence rates over time.

 

 

Figure 5. Age-standardized incidence rates for colorectal, lung and prostate cancer, males, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Observed incidence rates are based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with rates for 2009 are shown here to highlight the impact of this change in counting standards for multiple primary cancers, but such comparisons should generally not be made.
  3. Incidence trend lines are based on incidence rates that have been adjusted to adhere to the standards of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) for counting multiple primary cancers to allow for direct comparisons of incidence rates over time.
  4. Cancer cases defined by SEER site recode (see http://www.seer.cancer.gov/siterecode/icdo3_dwhoheme/index.html).

 

 

Figure 6. Age-standardized incidence rates for breast, colorectal and lung cancer, females, Ontario 1981 to 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Observed incidence rates are based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with rates for 2009 are shown here to highlight the impact of this change in counting standards for multiple primary cancers, but such comparisons should generally not be made.
  3. Incidence trend lines are based on incidence rates that have been adjusted to adhere to the standards of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) for counting multiple primary cancers to allow for direct comparisons of incidence rates over time.
  4. Cancer cases defined by SEER site recode (see http://www.seer.cancer.gov/siterecode/icdo3_dwhoheme/index.html).

 

 

Figure 7. Age-standardized mortality rates for all cancers, by sex, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Cancer deaths defined by SEER Cause of Death recode (see http://seer.cancer.gov/codrecode/1969+_d04162012/index.html).

 

 

Figure 8. Age-standardized mortality rates for colorectal, lung and prostate cancer, males, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Cancer deaths defined by SEER Cause of Death recode (see http://seer.cancer.gov/codrecode/1969+_d04162012/index.html).

 

 

Figure 9. Age-standardized mortality rates for breast, colorectal and lung cancer, females, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Cancer deaths defined by SEER Cause of Death recode (see http://seer.cancer.gov/codrecode/1969+_d04162012/index.html).

 

 

Figure 10. Age-standardized 5-year relative survival ratio (RSR) for 15 common cancers, Ontario, 1999 to 2003 vs. 2009 to 2013

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: February 2018

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. See “Technical information” for method
  2. Estimates include 1 cancer case per SEER recode site group, per person. Multiple primary cancers that are captured by the Ontario Cancer Registry's new NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers (adopted for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond) were excluded.

 

 

Figure 11. 10-year prevalence for the 10 most prevalent cancers, Ontario, as of Jan 1, 2014

More information regarding the methodology is available.

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Prevalence is based on specific cancer type. A person diagnosed with more than 1 type of cancer in that 10-year period will be included in the count for each type of cancer. However, if a person is diagnosed with more than 1 of the same cancer type (e.g., 2 colorectal cancers), only 1 cancer will be included in the prevalence estimate.

 

 

Data Table 1. Growth in new cancer cases, Ontario, 1981 to 2018

Year Baseline cancer incidence + additional cases due to a) change in cancer risk and b) population growth and c) population aging
(i.e., total number of new cases)
Baseline cancer incidence + additional cases due to a) change in cancer risk and b) population growth Baseline cancer incidence + additional cases due to change in cancer risk Baseline cancer incidence (i.e., incidence in 1981)
1981 29,650 29,650 29,650 29,650
1982 30,346 29,942 29,579 29,650
1983 31,885 31,110 30,328 29,650
1984 33,005 31,835 30,602 29,650
1985 34,268 32,709 31,011 29,650
1986 34,659 32,743 30,575 29,650
1987 36,469 34,135 31,211 29,650
1988 38,053 35,422 31,727 29,650
1989 38,269 35,506 30,969 29,650
1990 40,265 37,021 31,687 29,650
1991 42,462 38,634 32,638 29,650
1992 43,422 39,108 32,598 29,650
1993 44,448 39,567 32,617 29,650
1994 45,164 39,822 32,435 29,650
1995 45,021 39,351 31,668 29,650
1996 46,389 40,117 31,898 29,650
1997 48,108 41,287 32,405 29,650
1998 49,759 42,232 32,744 29,650
1999 51,484 43,364 33,216 29,650
2000 53,131 44,372 33,468 29,650
2001 54,794 45,520 33,716 29,650
2002 55,433 45,657 33,270 29,650
2003 56,053 45,438 32,704 29,650
2004 58,264 46,618 33,156 29,650
2005 59,716 47,111 33,139 29,650
2006 61,295 47,796 33,266 29,650
2007 63,810 48,822 33,706 29,650
2008 63,883 47,995 32,831 29,650
2009 65,484 48,471 32,863 29,650
2010 74,255 53,855 36,131 29,650
2011 76,964 54,919 36,488 29,650
2012 76,527 53,798 35,354 29,650
2013 77,088 53,135 34,554 29,650
2014 80,896 54,881 35,359 29,650
2015 83,326 55,566 35,503 29,650
2016 85,648 56,209 35,482 29,650
2017 88,045 56,868 35,466 29,650
2018 90,484 57,535 35,463 29,650

Report date: October 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Shaded rates are estimates.
  2. Number of new cases is based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with incidence counts and rates for 2009 and years prior should not be made.

 

 

 

Data Table 2. Most common cancers diagnosed in Ontario, males, 2013

Disease sites New cases
Prostate 7,647
Lung 4,954
Colorectal 4,772
Bladder 3,627
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2,223
Melanoma 1,858
Kidney and renal pelvis 1,428
Leukemia 1,408
Oral cavity and pharynx 1,337
All other cancers 9,199

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Number of new cases is based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with incidence counts and rates for 2009 and years prior should not be made.
  2. "All other cancers" grouping excludes basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. These cancers are not captured by the Ontario Cancer Registry.

 

 

 

Data Table 3. Most common cancers diagnosed in Ontario, females, 2013

Disease sites New cases
Breast 10,269
Lung 4,803
Colorectal 3,987
Thyroid 2,482
Uterus 2,409
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1,865
Melanoma 1,551
Ovary 1,192
Bladder 1,110
All other cancers 8,967

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Number of new cases is based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with incidence counts and rates for 2009 and years prior should not be made.
  2. "All other cancers" grouping excludes basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. These cancers are not captured by the Ontario Cancer Registry.

 

 

 

Data Table 4. Age-standardized incidence rates of all cancers, by sex, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

Year of diagnosis Female observed, age-standardized rate Female trend, age-standardized rate Male observed, age-standardized rate Male trend, age-standardized rate
1981 419.3 426.6 573.6 584.2
1982 419.0 428.5 571.1 586.7
1983 431.3 430.4 586.0 589.2
1984 432.1 432.2 591.9 591.7
1985 441.7 434.1 592.0 594.2
1986 430.2 436.0 592.5 596.8
1987 438.6 437.9 604.1 599.3
1988 451.7 439.8 604.8 601.9
1989 434.6 441.7 597.0 604.4
1990 443.8 443.6 612.4 607.0
1991 458.3 445.5 630.8 609.6
1992 449.1 447.5 638.7 612.2
1993 447.5 449.4 639.0 614.8
1994 445.6 451.4 629.5 617.4
1995 450.0 453.3 599.3 620.1
1996 448.2 455.3 607.2 622.7
1997 454.8 457.3 616.7 625.4
1998 468.4 459.3 613.8 628.0
1999 471.8 461.3 623.8 630.7
2000 470.4 463.3 635.5 633.4
2001 468.8 465.3 647.6 636.1
2002 475.5 467.3 618.2 631.3
2003 464.7 469.3 611.7 626.4
2004 468.9 471.4 618.3 621.7
2005 468.1 473.4 620.6 616.9
2006 466.8 475.5 620.6 612.2
2007 478.2 477.5 624.4 607.5
2008 470.6 479.6 603.0 602.9
2009 479.2 481.7 589.9 598.3
2010 527.0 483.8 657.7 593.7
2011 530.1 485.9 668.3 589.2
2012 526.2 488.0 628.0 584.7
2013 523.3 490.1 605.1 580.2

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Observed incidence rates are based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with rates for 2009 are shown here to highlight the impact of this change in counting standards for multiple primary cancers, but such comparisons should generally not be made.
  3. Incidence trend lines are based on incidence rates that have been adjusted to adhere to the standards of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) for counting multiple primary cancers to allow for direct comparisons of incidence rates over time.

 

 

 

Data Table 5. Age-standardized incidence rates for colorectal, lung and prostate cancer, males, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

Year of diagnosis Colorectal observed, age-standardized rate Colorectal trend, age-standardized rate Lung observed, age-standardized rate Lung trend, age-standardized rate Prostate observed, age-standardized rate Prostate trend, age-standardized rate
1981 81.1 85.2 116.6 119.8 102.4 90.2
1982 82.1 85.0 119.1 119.6 98.3 94.6
1983 83.8 84.8 122.0 119.3 100.4 99.2
1984 89.1 84.6 121.3 119.1 104.4 104.0
1985 85.6 84.4 117.5 118.9 107.4 109.1
1986 82.2 84.2 121.1 118.7 112.6 114.4
1987 84.7 84.0 117.8 118.4 113.7 119.9
1988 86.7 83.7 117.6 118.2 113.9 125.7
1989 85.2 83.5 117.1 118.0 116.9 131.8
1990 86.1 83.3 116.9 115.5 130.9 138.2
1991 82.5 83.1 114.2 113.1 150.4 145.0
1992 84.5 82.9 112.3 110.8 166.3 152.0
1993 80.4 82.7 110.1 108.5 174.5 159.4
1994 83.1 82.5 104.6 106.3 166.1 161.3
1995 79.6 82.3 101.9 104.1 148.2 163.3
1996 80.3 82.1 102.1 101.9 155.8 165.3
1997 79.0 81.9 97.2 99.8 168.1 167.3
1998 79.9 81.7 97.5 97.7 166.9 169.4
1999 82.3 81.4 95.2 95.7 167.0 171.5
2000 84.5 81.2 94.0 93.7 176.5 173.6
2001 85.2 81.0 93.9 91.8 192.6 175.7
2002 81.7 80.8 88.5 89.9 179.0 177.9
2003 77.5 80.6 85.5 88.1 169.6 180.0
2004 80.1 80.4 84.4 86.2 179.9 182.2
2005 79.7 80.2 87.0 84.4 184.9 184.5
2006 80.2 80.0 83.9 82.7 188.5 186.7
2007 78.8 79.8 80.6 81.0 186.8 189.0
2008 79.9 78.3 77.1 79.3 169.2 177.6
2009 75.2 76.8 76.8 79.7 165.2 166.8
2010 79.1 75.4 88.1 80.0 164.0 156.7
2011 79.5 74.0 83.1 80.4 165.6 147.2
2012 73.3 72.6 85.1 80.7 135.8 138.3
2013 75.8 71.2 78.6 81.1 118.4 130.0

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Observed incidence rates are based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with rates for 2009 are shown here to highlight the impact of this change in counting standards for multiple primary cancers, but such comparisons should generally not be made.
  3. Incidence trend lines are based on incidence rates that have been adjusted to adhere to the standards of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) for counting multiple primary cancers to allow for direct comparisons of incidence rates over time.
  4. Cancer cases defined by SEER site recode (see http://www.seer.cancer.gov/siterecode/icdo3_dwhoheme/index.html).

 

 

 

Data Table 6. Age-standardized incidence rates for breast, colorectal and lung cancer, females, Ontario 1981 to 2013

Year of diagnosis Breast observed, age-standardized rate Breast trend, age-standardized rate Colorectal observed, age-standardized rate Colorectal trend, age-standardized rate Lung observed, age-standardized rate Lung trend, age-standardized rate
1981 118.2 108.3 61.6 66.4 34.7 34.2
1982 110.1 110.4 65.3 65.6 35.1 36.4
1983 113.6 112.6 65.5 64.8 40.2 38.8
1984 116.1 114.8 65.6 64.0 40.4 41.3
1985 118.2 117.1 65.1 63.3 43.6 44.0
1986 114.8 119.4 61.9 62.5 44.4 44.8
1987 118.2 121.8 63.5 61.8 45.2 45.7
1988 127.7 124.2 62.2 61.0 48.3 46.6
1989 125.6 126.6 59.2 60.3 46.3 47.5
1990 124.7 129.1 59.1 59.6 48.3 48.5
1991 134.2 131.7 61.3 58.8 50.5 49.4
1992 135.9 134.3 56.0 58.1 51.8 50.4
1993 130.3 134.0 57.4 57.4 51.7 51.4
1994 129.0 133.7 58.0 56.7 51.6 52.4
1995 130.7 133.4 56.7 56.0 53.4 53.5
1996 129.7 133.1 54.6 55.4 54.4 54.5
1997 136.7 132.8 53.0 56.5 54.7 55.6
1998 136.6 132.6 59.1 57.6 57.6 56.0
1999 139.1 132.3 58.8 58.7 56.8 56.3
2000 133.5 132.0 58.5 58.1 58.3 56.7
2001 133.7 131.7 57.8 57.4 57.8 57.1
2002 137.4 131.4 56.1 56.8 56.5 57.5
2003 128.6 131.1 55.8 56.1 55.6 57.9
2004 129.9 130.8 55.2 55.5 57.7 58.2
2005 129.6 130.6 54.7 54.9 59.6 58.6
2006 128.5 130.3 53.2 54.2 58.1 59.0
2007 130.2 130.0 54.3 53.6 58.2 59.4
2008 125.4 129.7 53.9 53.0 58.2 59.8
2009 127.7 129.4 52.8 52.4 57.4 60.2
2010 145.8 129.2 55.0 51.8 63.9 60.6
2011 146.3 128.9 52.5 51.3 64.5 61.0
2012 142.5 128.6 53.0 50.7 65.6 61.4
2013 141.5 128.3 52.3 50.1 63.6 61.8

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Observed incidence rates are based on the NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers, which were adopted by the Ontario Cancer Registry for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. Direct comparisons with rates for 2009 are shown here to highlight the impact of this change in counting standards for multiple primary cancers, but such comparisons should generally not be made.
  3. Incidence trend lines are based on incidence rates that have been adjusted to adhere to the standards of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) for counting multiple primary cancers to allow for direct comparisons of incidence rates over time.
  4. Cancer cases defined by SEER site recode (see http://www.seer.cancer.gov/siterecode/icdo3_dwhoheme/index.html).

 

 

 

Data Table 7. Age-standardized mortality rates for all cancers, by sex, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

Year of diagnosis Female observed, age-standardized rate Female trend, age-standardized rate Male observed, age-standardized rate Male trend, age-standardized rate
1981 202.8 201.7 323.5 324.4
1982 203.3 203.7 323.3 325.9
1983 204.2 205.7 330.4 327.4
1984 207.6 207.7 331.0 328.9
1985 214.0 209.8 333.1 330.4
1986 206.7 209.1 328.9 332.0
1987 208.8 208.5 330.3 333.5
1988 208.9 207.9 342.9 335.0
1989 207.7 207.2 332.8 332.0
1990 202.0 206.6 323.2 328.9
1991 205.5 206.0 323.7 325.9
1992 203.1 205.3 321.8 322.9
1993 206.0 204.7 317.1 319.9
1994 207.8 204.1 324.6 317.0
1995 206.6 203.5 315.9 314.0
1996 205.2 202.9 309.5 311.1
1997 196.6 202.2 308.2 308.3
1998 198.1 201.6 300.4 305.4
1999 201.2 201.0 300.2 302.6
2000 202.4 200.4 300.2 299.8
2001 201.3 199.8 300.0 297.1
2002 198.3 199.2 295.0 291.7
2003 196.4 196.4 288.1 286.3
2004 195.0 193.6 281.2 281.1
2005 193.4 190.8 273.9 275.9
2006 184.7 188.1 271.4 270.9
2007 184.5 185.4 262.0 265.9
2008 183.0 182.8 259.9 261.1
2009 178.2 180.2 256.2 256.3
2010 178.3 177.6 251.8 251.6
2011 176.3 175.1 249.9 247.0
2012 173.5 172.6 243.7 242.5
2013 169.5 170.2 236.7 238.1

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Cancer deaths defined by SEER Cause of Death recode (see http://seer.cancer.gov/codrecode/1969+_d04162012/index.html).

 

 

 

Data Table 8. Age-standardized mortality rates for colorectal, lung and prostate cancer, males, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

Year of death Colorectal observed, age-standardized rate Colorectal trend, age-standardized rate Lung observed, age-standardized rate Lung trend, age-standardized rate Prostate observed, age-standardized rate Prostate trend, age-standardized rate
1981 47.9 49.6 97.3 99.8 38.2 36.5
1982 46.0 49.0 100.0 100.3 34.4 37.1
1983 47.8 48.3 103.6 100.7 38.3 37.7
1984 47.2 47.7 104.5 101.2 37.5 38.4
1985 48.9 47.1 100.9 101.7 39.2 39.0
1986 48.2 46.5 100.0 102.2 38.8 39.6
1987 45.6 45.9 99.6 102.6 41.9 40.3
1988 47.4 45.3 103.7 103.1 42.9 40.9
1989 47.0 44.7 101.1 100.9 40.9 41.6
1990 43.7 44.2 98.3 98.7 41.2 42.3
1991 42.5 43.6 95.5 96.5 42.1 42.9
1992 43.0 43.0 92.8 94.4 44.3 43.6
1993 40.7 42.5 94.4 92.4 44.4 44.4
1994 42.1 41.9 91.8 90.3 44.1 45.1
1995 43.0 41.4 88.2 88.4 44.0 43.8
1996 40.5 40.9 86.4 86.4 41.9 42.6
1997 41.7 40.3 83.9 84.6 41.0 41.4
1998 39.4 39.8 81.2 82.7 40.6 40.2
1999 37.6 39.3 83.3 80.9 38.3 39.0
2000 39.6 38.8 76.9 79.2 37.7 37.9
2001 37.4 38.3 79.5 77.4 38.1 36.9
2002 39.0 37.8 77.7 75.7 37.0 35.8
2003 37.8 37.3 74.2 74.1 35.5 34.8
2004 35.4 36.9 71.5 72.5 34.9 33.8
2005 37.3 36.4 71.6 70.9 31.6 32.9
2006 33.8 35.1 71.9 69.4 32.1 31.9
2007 33.0 33.9 66.8 67.8 30.0 31.0
2008 33.5 32.7 64.2 66.4 30.1 30.2
2009 31.7 31.5 64.6 64.9 29.1 29.3
2010 29.8 30.4 65.2 63.5 29.3 28.5
2011 30.5 29.3 62.5 62.1 27.7 27.7
2012 29.0 28.3 60.6 60.8 26.0 26.9
2013 26.0 27.3 57.7 59.4 26.3 26.1

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Cancer deaths defined by SEER Cause of Death recode (see http://seer.cancer.gov/codrecode/1969+_d04162012/index.html).

 

 

 

Data Table 9. Age-standardized mortality rates for breast, colorectal and lung cancer, females, Ontario, 1981 to 2013

Year of death Breast observed, age-standardized rate Breast trend, age-standardized rate Colorectal observed, age-standardized rate Colorectal trend, age-standardized rate Lung observed, age-standardized rate Lung trend, age-standardized rate
1981 41.6 41.3 35.3 34.7 24.7 25.0
1982 41.4 41.8 34.2 34.1 27.2 26.9
1983 41.8 42.4 32.1 33.5 28.7 28.8
1984 43.6 42.9 33.2 33.0 31.3 31.0
1985 43.5 43.5 33.6 32.4 33.9 33.2
1986 44.5 44.1 31.8 31.8 32.5 33.9
1987 43.6 43.6 31.2 31.2 34.1 34.5
1988 42.6 43.1 32.2 30.7 36.1 35.2
1989 43.9 42.6 29.7 30.2 34.7 35.9
1990 41.3 42.2 28.9 29.6 36.0 36.6
1991 41.0 41.7 29.1 29.1 38.5 37.3
1992 40.8 41.3 28.4 28.6 38.0 38.0
1993 40.5 40.8 26.9 28.1 40.4 38.8
1994 41.5 40.4 26.4 27.6 40.6 39.5
1995 40.8 39.9 28.1 27.1 39.2 40.3
1996 39.5 38.9 27.2 26.6 41.2 41.1
1997 37.9 37.9 25.0 26.2 39.4 41.9
1998 34.5 36.9 25.2 25.7 42.8 42.7
1999 34.4 36.0 26.4 25.3 43.9 43.5
2000 35.8 35.1 25.1 24.8 44.4 44.4
2001 34.2 34.2 24.2 24.4 44.3 44.2
2002 33.5 33.3 24.6 24.0 43.4 44.0
2003 32.9 32.5 22.4 23.5 42.7 43.8
2004 32.3 31.6 23.8 23.1 43.5 43.6
2005 32.0 30.8 22.9 22.5 43.4 43.5
2006 29.2 30.0 21.2 21.9 44.7 43.3
2007 30.0 29.3 21.7 21.3 43.0 43.1
2008 28.2 28.5 20.6 20.7 44.7 42.9
2009 27.4 27.8 20.3 20.2 42.9 42.8
2010 26.9 27.1 19.1 19.6 43.7 42.6
2011 26.8 26.4 19.7 19.1 41.3 42.4
2012 25.7 25.7 18.1 18.6 42.0 42.2
2013 24.5 25.0 18.2 18.1 41.1 42.1

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Rates are per 100,000 and standardized to the age distribution of the 2011 Canadian population.
  2. Cancer deaths defined by SEER Cause of Death recode (see http://seer.cancer.gov/codrecode/1969+_d04162012/index.html).

 

 

 

Data Table 10. Age-standardized 5-year relative survival ratio (RSR) for 15 common cancers, Ontario, 1999 to 2003 vs. 2009 to 2013

Type of cancer 1999 to 2003 (%) 95% confidence interval (low, high) 2009 to 2013 (%) 95% confidence interval (low, high)
Thyroid 91.4 89.1, 93.2 95.7 93.6, 97.1
Prostate 93.9 93.2, 94.4 94.1 93.4, 94.8
Breast (female) 86.4 85.8, 87.0 87.9 87.1, 88.6
Melanoma 82.8 81.5, 84.1 85.7 84.2, 87.0
Uterus 83.2 81.9, 84.4 80.5 78.9, 81.9
Kidney 66.5 65.0, 67.9 72.0 70.3, 73.6
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 57.3 56.3, 58.4 68.5 67.3, 69.8
Colorectal 61.2 60.5, 61.8 67.9 67.1, 68.6
Bladder 70.4 69.2, 71.6 67.1 65.4, 68.7
Oral cavity and pharynx 58.9 57.3, 60.5 59.8 58.0, 61.6
Leukemia 51.3 50.0, 52.5 57.4 55.9, 59.0
Stomach 26.2 24.9, 27.5 32.3 30.5, 34.1
Lung 16.9 16.5, 17.4 21.7 21.0, 22.4
Liver 19.9 18.2, 21.6 20.9 19.1, 22.7
Pancreas 10.4 9.5, 11.3 11.6 10.5, 12.8

Report date: February 2018

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. See “Technical information” for method
  2. Estimates include 1 cancer case per SEER recode site group, per person. Multiple primary cancers that are captured by the Ontario Cancer Registry's new NCI SEER standards for counting multiple primary cancers (adopted for cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond) were excluded.

 

 

 

Data Table 11. 10-year prevalence for the 10 most prevalent cancers, Ontario, as of Jan 1, 2014

Cancer type Number of prevalent cases
Prostate 75,634
Breast (female) 71,355
Colorectal 45,617
Thyroid 23,172
Melanoma 19,822
Lung 19,054
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 18,716
Bladder 17,705
Uterus 15,651
Leukemia 11,211

Report date: January, 2017

Data source: Ontario Cancer Registry (November 2016)

Prepared by: Surveillance, Analytics and Informatics, CCO

Note:

  1. Prevalence is based on specific cancer type. A person diagnosed with more than 1 type of cancer in that 10-year period will be included in the count for each type of cancer. However, if a person is diagnosed with more than 1 of the same cancer type (e.g., 2 colorectal cancers), only 1 cancer will be included in the prevalence estimate.

 

What do the results show?

The number of new cancer cases diagnosed each year in Ontario has increased annually since 1981 (Figure 1).

  • An aging population and population growth have contributed proportionally more new cases of cancer over the last 32 years than any changes in the risk of developing cancer (Figure 1).
  • In 2018, an estimated 90,484 new cancer cases will be diagnosed, which is more than 3 times the number of new cancer cases in 1981 (29,650). Of the additional new cases, about half will be due to an aging population, about one-third will be due to a growing population and nearly one-tenth will be due to changes in cancer risk.

 

The most commonly diagnosed cancers in Ontario for males were prostate (20%), lung (13%) and colorectal (12%). For females, the most common cancers were breast (27%), lung (12%) and colorectal (10%) (Figures 2 and 3).

  • The incidence rate for all cancers combined in males increased from 1981 to 2001. It then began to decline.
  • For females, the incidence rate for all cancers combined has been increasing steadily since 1981 (Figure 4).
  • Starting with 2010 diagnoses, the Ontario Cancer Registry rules for counting multiple primary cancers were changed to align the registry with the North American standard. This change has resulted in more cancer cases being counted for certain cancer types, but it does not necessarily reflect an increase in the number of people being diagnosed with cancer in the province. The impact of this change differs by cancer type, with some cancers (such as female breast) showing a particularly large increase in incidence rates, while others (such as colorectal and lung) show more modest increases (Figures 4 to 6).

 

Incidence rates for 3 of the most common cancers diagnosed in males in Ontario (prostate, lung and colorectal) are either stable or declining (Figure 5).

  • The prostate cancer incidence rate has been declining since 2007. The peak in incidence in 1993 likely coincided with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in 1988.
  • The lung cancer incidence rate has been stable since 2008.
  • The colorectal cancer incidence rate has been declining since 1981.

 

Incidence rates for 3 of the most common cancers diagnosed in females in Ontario (breast, lung and colorectal) are increasing or declining in Ontario (Figure 6).

  • Breast cancer incidence increased at 2% per year from the 1980s to the early 1990s. It then decreased annually from 1992 to 2012.
  • The lung cancer incidence rate has been increasing since the 1980s, but the upward trend has been slowing since 1997.
  • Colorectal cancer incidence in females is complex. The rate fell by 1.2% per year from 1982 to 1996, remained stable from 1996 to 1999, and then fell again from 1999 onwards. This reflects an increase in the rectal cancer incidence rate from 1996 to 1999, while the colon cancer incidence rate declined throughout the same period.

 

Mortality has been decreasing for both males and females for a number of years (Figure 7).

  • The mortality rate for all cancers combined in males increased from 1981 to 1988. It has declined significantly from 1988 to 2013 (Figure 7).
  • For females, the mortality rate for all cancers combined increased from 1981 to 1985. It then declined from 1985 to 2013 (Figure 7).

 

Mortality rates for 3 of the most common cancers diagnosed in males in Ontario (prostate, lung and colorectal) are declining (Figure 8).

  • The prostate cancer mortality rate rose from 1981 to 1994. It then fell annually from 1994 to 2013.
  • The lung cancer mortality rate began to level off in the late 1980s and has been declining ever since.
  • The colorectal cancer mortality rate has been declining steadily since the early 1980s.

 

Mortality rates for 3 of the most common cancers diagnosed in females in Ontario (breast, lung and colorectal) are stable or declining in Ontario (Figure 9).

  • The breast cancer mortality rate has been declining since 1986.
  • The lung cancer mortality rate increased from 1981 to 2000. Since 2000, however, it has been declining annually.
  • The colorectal cancer mortality rate declined from 1981 to 2013.

 

The 5-year relative survival ratio for most common cancers has improved in Ontario since 1999 (Figure 10).

  • The improvements in survival are a result of advances in treatment and detection, including improvements in diagnostic technologies and the implementation of organized screening programs for some cancers.
  • The exceptions to this improvement are uterus and bladder cancers, for which survival declined slightly but not significantly. Other jurisdictions (including Europe, South Australia and the United States) have recorded stable or decreasing trends for bladder cancer survival over similar time frames.
  • Beginning in 2005, changes in pathology reporting led to more accurate identification of in situ bladder cases. These were subsequently removed from survival analyses, and survival for the remaining malignant cases is lower. Changes in the distribution of histologic subtypes for bladder cancer, which differ in their survival, may also be a contributor to the slight decline in the 5-year relative survival ratio for this cancer.
  • In spite of improvements, relative survival remains low for cancers of the pancreas, lung and stomach, which are all less than 32%. This means that, compared to Ontarians of the same age and sex, the probability of surviving at least 5 years after a diagnosis of one of these cancers is reduced by more than 68%.
  • The 5-year relative survival ratios for thyroid, prostate, female breast and melanoma cancers are high – 85% or higher. In particular, the 5-year relative survival ratios for thyroid and prostate cancers are 93% or higher.

 

Prostate and breast cancers have the highest 10-year prevalence (Figure 11).

  • As of January 1, 2014, 75,634 men living in Ontario had been diagnosed with prostate cancer within the previous 10 years. During that same period, 71,355 women living in Ontario had been diagnosed with breast cancer. The prevalence for both of these cancers is high because of their high incidence and good survival rates.
  • Although colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Ontario, the 10-year prevalence for this cancer was only about 45,617 (as of January 1, 2014). This is a reflection that colorectal cancer has lower survival than breast and prostate cancers.
  • Although lung cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in Ontario, it ranks lower for prevalence than the less common cancers of thyroid and melanoma. This is due to the very poor survival for lung cancer compared with the high survival for thyroid cancer and melanoma.
  • In spite of increasing cancer incidence, more effective treatments and early detection have resulted in more Ontarians surviving cancer with each passing year. As a result, many cancers are now being managed as chronic conditions.

 

Find out more

More information on cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in Ontario can be found in the Ontario Cancer Statistics Report, 2018.

Information on cancer statistics across Canada can be found in Canadian Cancer Statistics.