• 2,300 women
    women were determined to be at high risk for breast cancer by the High Risk Screening Program in Ontario in 2015
  • 86%
    of cancer patients saw a registered dietitian at a regional cancer centre within 14 days of referral in 2016
  • 71%
    of stage III colon cancer patients received chemotherapy within 60 days of after surgery in 2014
  • 86%
    of all cancer surgery patients received their consult within the recommended wait time in 2016, and 87% received their surgery within the recommend wait time
  • Over 43,000
    patients were discussed at comprehensive multidisciplinary cancer conferences (MCCs) in fiscal year 2016/2017
  • About 13%
    of patients who undergo lung, prostate and colorectal surgery have an unplanned hospital visit following surgery
  • 79%
    of breast cancer patients had a guideline-recommended mammogram in the first follow-up year
  • 74%
    of colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in 2013 had a surveillance colonoscopy within 18 months of surgery
  • Over 100
    patient and family advisors, who vary by their type of cancer and experiences, represent diverse regions and work with Cancer Care Ontario to ensure a person-centred cancer system
  • 383,023
    unique patients were screened for symptom severity using Your Symptoms Matter – General Symptoms (YSM-General) in 2016
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Genitourinary Cancers


What are genitourinary cancers?

Genitourinary cancers are cancers that affect the reproductive organs and the urinary system.

Adrenal Cancer

  • Adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. It is primarily responsible for hormonal control such as growth, reproduction, sleep, hunger and metabolism. It is rare for cancer to start in the adrenal glands—tumours will more often start in another part of the body and spread to the adrenal gland1.

Bladder Cancer

  • The bladder is part of the urinary system. Bladder cancer occurs in cells of the urothelium, which is a layer that lines the insides of the ureter, bladder, urethra and parts of the kidneys. The most common form of bladder cancer is called urothelial carcinoma, which makes up roughly 90% of total bladder cancers2. When the cancer is only in the urothelium, it is called non-invasive bladder cancer. If the cancer spreads into the connective tissue or muscle in the wall of the bladder, it is called invasive bladder cancer.

Kidney Cancer

  • The kidneys are located on either side of the spine and are responsible for filtering water and waste products from the blood to make urine. The most common type of kidney cancers is called renal cell carcinoma, which happens in cells that line the tubules. Rare types of kidney cancer can also develop such as renal sarcoma and primary renal lymphoma.

Penile Cancer

  • Penile cancer starts in the penis, which is part of the male reproductive and urinary system. The most common form of penile cancer is called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis, which arises in the skin and/or head of the penis. Approximately 95% of all penile cancer is attributed to penile cancer3. Rare types of penile cancer can also develop such as adenocarcinoma, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).

Prostate Cancer

  • Prostate cancer originates in the cells of the prostate, which is a small gland in the male reproductive system that produces seminal fluid. The prostate gland is located below the bladder in front of the rectum and surrounds the upper part of the urethra. Prostate cancer begins to develop in the glandular cells of the prostate, which is the most common type and is called the adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

Testicular Cancer

  • The testicles are part of the male reproductive system and are responsible for testosterone and sperm production. The most common form of testicular cancer begins in germ cells located in the testicles called germ cell tumours. Nearly 90% of all testicular cancer is attributed to germ cell tumours4.

For Cancer System Quality Index (CSQI) data about genitourinary cancer, see the following sections:

For more information on genitourinary cancer, visit the following sites:

View Notes

  1. Cancer.ca [Internet]. Toronto: Canadian Cancer Society; c2016. Lung cancer diagnosis patient pathway; [cited 2015 Mar 7]. Available from: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/adrenal-gland/adrenal-gland-cancer.
  2. Cancer.ca [Internet]. Toronto: Canadian Cancer Society; c2017. Bladder cancer; [cited 2017 Mar 10]. Available from: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/bladder/bladder-cancer.
  3. Mahmud A, Qu X, Yip D, Leveridge M, Mackillop W. The Patterns of Practice and Outcomes of Penile Cancer in Ontario. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2017;29(4):239-247.
  4. Cancer.ca [Internet]. Toronto: Canadian Cancer Society; c2017. Testicular cancer; [cited 2017 Mar 13]. Available from: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/testicular/testicular-cancer/